The Treaty of Portsmouth, signed on September 5, 1905, officially ended the Russo-Japanese War. The negotiations took place in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and were mediated by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, earning him the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906. The treaty marked the first time a non-European power had defeated a European power, and it had far-reaching consequences for both countries and the rest of the world.
So, what were the major agreements of the Treaty of Portsmouth?
Firstly, the most significant outcome of the treaty was the recognition of Japan as a major international power and the equal of European powers. Russia agreed to give up its claim to Port Arthur and the Liaodong Peninsula in China, which it had seized during the war. Japan, in turn, gained control over the southern half of Sakhalin Island, which had been under Russian control. This agreement marked the first time Japan had acquired territory outside its own borders.
Secondly, Russia agreed to recognize Korean independence, which had been Japanese`s ultimate goal in the war. This agreement made Korea a protectorate of Japan, which remained in control of the peninsula until the end of World War II.
Thirdly, the treaty established a railway line connecting the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway to the Chinese Eastern Railway, which had been under Japanese control.
Finally, both countries agreed to limit their military forces in the Far East, including reducing the number of troops and warships in the region.
The Treaty of Portsmouth had a significant impact on the global stage. It marked a shift in power dynamics as Japan emerged as a major player in international affairs and challenged the notion of Western dominance. The treaty also set the stage for future conflicts in the region, including the Russo-Japanese War of 1939 and World War II.
In conclusion, the major agreements of the Treaty of Portsmouth were the recognition of Japan as a major international power, the acquisition of territory by Japan, the recognition of Korean independence, the establishment of a railway line, and the limitation of military forces in the Far East. These agreements had far-reaching consequences for both countries and the rest of the world and marked a significant shift in global power dynamics.